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    Software name: appdown
    Software type: Microsoft Framwork

    size: 246MB

    Lanuage:Englist

    Software instructions

      "She is your cousin, you say?"


      If asked for advice as to the most important object for an apprentice to aim at in beginning his fitting course, nine out of ten experienced men will say, "to do work well." As power is measured by force and velocity, work is measured by the two conditions of skill and time. The first consideration being, how well a thing may be done, and secondly, in how short a time may it be performed; the skill spent on a piece of work is the measure of its worth; if work is badly executed, it makes no difference how short the time of performance has been; this can add nothing to the value of what is done although the expense is diminished.


      To follow this matter further. It will be found in such machines as are directed mainly to augmenting force or increasing the amount of power that may be applied in any operation, such as sawing wood or stone, the effect produced when compared to hand labour is nearly as the difference in the amount of power applied; and the saving that such machines effect is generally in the same proportion. A machine that can expend ten horse-power in performing a certain kind of work, will save ten times as much as a machine directed to the same purpose expending but one horse-power; this of course applies to machines for the performance of the coarser kinds of work, and employed to supplant mere physical effort. In other machines of application, such as are directed mainly to guidance, or speed of action, such as sewing machines, dove-tailing machines, gear-cutting machines, and so on, there is no relation whatever between the increased [59] effect that may be produced and the amount of power expended.After a few encouraging words I walked on along the solitary, deserted road, leaving the canal on the right, until a by-way took me to the bank of the Meuse, opposite the Netherland frontier village Eysden. I entered a deserted inn. After shouting for a long time, the inn-keeper appeared, looked shyly at me, remaining constantly close by the door of his room. His attitude showed that he was prepared to fly at the slightest suspicious movement on my part; but as soon as I had convinced him that I was a Netherland journalist, he became more friendly, and called his wife and daughters, so that I might tell them all I knew. They were very desirous to know how the war went ... in the Netherlands, and whether we were fighting the Germans or the English? It was very difficult to make them understand that they were under a misapprehension, but when I had at last succeeded in this, I started in my turn to ask them what they thought of my intention to go farther.

      There is much in Mr. Mokveld's narrative to interest the historian. For example, he gives a 6 fuller account than we have yet had of that obscure period when Lige had fallen, but its northern forts were still holding out. But it is less a history of the campaign than a chronicle of those lesser incidents of war which reveal the character of the combatants. No more crushing indictment of German methods has been issued, the more crushing since it is so fair and reasonable. The author has very readily set down on the credit side any act of German humanity or courtesy which he witnessed or heard of. But the credit side is meagre and the black list of crimes portentous. Episodes like the burning of Vis and the treatment of British prisoners in the train at Landen would be hard to match in history for squalid horror.Considered upon grounds of commercial expediency as a question of cost alone, it is generally cheaper to move material by hand when it can be easily lifted or moved by workmen, when the movement is mainly in a horizontal direction, and when the labour can be constantly employed; or, to assume a general rule which in practice amounts to much the same thing, vertical lifting should be done by motive power, and horizontal movement for short distances performed by hand. There is nothing more unnatural than for men to carry loads up stairs or ladders; the effort expended in such cases is one-half or more devoted to raising the weight of the body, which is not utilised in the descent, and it is always better to employ winding or other mechanism for raising weights, even when it is to be operated by manual labour. Speaking of this matter of carrying loads upward, I am reminded of the fact that builders in England and America, especially in the latter country, often have material carried up ladders, while in some of the older European countries, where there is but little pretension to scientific manipulation, bricks are usually tossed from one man to another standing on ladders at a distance of ten to fifteen feet apart.

      Let the reader compare a hammer with a wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, or lever, as an agent for concentrating and applying power, noting the principles of its action first, and then considering its universal use, and he will conclude that, if there is a mechanical device that comprehends distinct principles, that device is the common hammer. It seems, indeed, to be one of those provisions to meet a human necessity, and without which mechanical industry could not be carried on. In the manipulation of nearly every kind of material, the hammer is continually necessary in order to exert a force beyond what the hands may do, unaided by mechanism to multiply their force. A carpenter in driving a spike requires a force of from one to two tons; a blacksmith requires a force of from five pounds to five tons to meet the requirements of his work; a stonemason applies a force of from one hundred to one thousand pounds in driving the edge of his tools; chipping, calking, in fact nearly all mechanical operations, consist more or less in blows, such blows being the application of accumulated force expended throughout a limited distance.


      "A German officer came nearer, and, uncovering his head, said in a voice trembling with emotion: 'General, what you performed is admirable!' Evidently these words slightly comforted the defender of Lige, who before long was removed by motor-car to an ambulance in the town."

      "Well, it seems that the civilians cannot understand that only soldiers may fight soldiers, and for that reason the whole place has been set on fire."

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      I noticed the smell of fire already several miles from Louvain. On both sides of the road small mounds indicated the graves of soldiers who fell115 during the brave resistance of the Belgians before Louvain. A small wooden cross and some pieces of accoutrement were the only decorations. Carcases of horses were lying in the fields, from which came a disagreeable smell.He did not seem to mind much the destruction of the Halls with their world-famous wealth of books; anyway he spoke about it in an unconcerned tone. But he seemed to attach great importance to the safety of the town-hall. He said that when the buildings adjoining the town-hall began to burn, he had them blown up in order to keep the fire away from the beautiful monument.

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      The shelling went on during the night, and all that time the inhabitants remained in their cellars.


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